Flüssigkeitsdämpfer zur Reduktion periodischer und stochastischer Schwingungen turmartiger Bauwerke
Altay, Okyay; Meskouris, Konstantin (Thesis advisor)
Aachen : Publikationsserver der RWTH Aachen University (2013)
Dissertation / PhD Thesis
The tuned liquid column damper (TLCD), patented by Frahm already in 1910, consists of a U-shaped tube system filled with a Newtonian liquid. The tuned parameters of the liquid damper enable the liquid mass to oscillate with a 90° phase shift with respect to the motion of the structure, leading to interaction forces on the primary structure such as viscous damping loads. The oscillation energy of the liquid dissipates in the tube system because of turbulence effects and local pressure loss caused by friction. The mathematical expression of the liquid motion is carried out using the instationary Bernoulli equation. The natural frequency of the liquid damper depends on the geometry of the tube system. The dissipation forces of the absorber result from the impulse, which is caused by the liquid column motion. In order to determine the parameters of the liquid damper the tuning criteria of Den Hartog, Warburton and Lyapunov, which are valid for mechanical dampers, can be applied through the already known analogy approaches. The results of these criteria are the optimal natural frequency and the optimal damping ratio of the liquid damper. The geometry factors of the liquid damper affect the effective liquid mass ratio, which is critical for the reduction of the oscillation. The geometry factors are defined by the angle of inclination of the vertical stream line of fluid flow, the sectional area and the length of the liquid column. In order to solve the optimization problem in the research works so far developed, the geometry factors have always been assumed as known values. As the absorber efficiency depends not only on the tuning of the natural frequency and the damping ratio but also on the effective liquid mass ratio, the geometry factors must be included in the optimization procedure of the liquid damper. To achieve this purpose in this research work the tuning criteria of Den Hartog, Warburton and as well as Lyapunov are set up with a new expanded optimization approach. The practical application of the new optimization approach is demonstrated with the aid of two examples. The first example deals with a wind turbine, which is periodically excited by a non-uniform wind flow. The second example shows the application on a seismically excited benchmark building. The efficiency of the liquid damper and the influence of the absorber parameter are calculated through sensitivity analysis and compared with the conventional mechanical tuned mass dampers. This research work includes the conceptual design of a new semi-active liquid damper. The nonlinear equations of motion as well as the interaction forces are mathematically derived and the damper efficiency is numerically validated.